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Africa: Zipline delivering Pfizer’s vaccine to remote villages of Ghana via drone

By Chris Stonor

It was announced last week that drone medical delivery company, Zipline, is transporting Pfizer Covid-19 vaccines to remote parts of Ghana, reports

Over the dense forests and cocoa farms of Ghana’s Ashanti region, a fleet of drones are regularly on route to the African country’s central Bosomtwe District. Upon reaching their destination, the red-and-white aircraft parachute thermal packages containing vials of Pfizer’s Covid-19 vaccine.

In the coming days and weeks, these drones will shuttle tens of thousands of these shots developed by Pfizer and its partner BioNTech to some of Ghana’s most rugged and remote countryside as part of an effort to provide more equitable access to doses. Every four minutes, from dawn until dusk, drones operated by Zipline will depart from distribution centres holding the immunisation.  It has been tasked with bringing vaccines to 40 percent of Ghana’s population.

Daniel Marfo

This isn’t Zipline’s first time working with Covid vaccines and supplies, but the messenger RNA shots have a strict requirement for storage at ultra-cold temperatures. Until ready for use, the Pfizer-BioNTech doses must be stored as cold as minus 90°C — colder than the lowest readings recorded on Earth’s surface. Ghana is among the many low and middle-income countries lacking the equipment and infrastructure to store and deliver these shots.

Daniel Marfo, Zipline Senior Vice-President of Africa, commented, “When you go outside the city, you get to places where delivering can be a nightmare. That is the real last mile – places where road accessibility is terrible, where changing weather conditions can cut communities off and where river bodies or lakes separate people from the mainland.”

The US government donated the Pfizer-BioNTech shots through the World Health Organisation-backed Covax program, and Ghana has turned to Zipline to make the deliveries. In total, the start-up will ferry 50,000 Pfizer-BioNTech doses across nine districts of the Ashanti region, along with other districts further north and west.

Kwaku Agyeman-Manu, the Health Minister, said, “As part of our national response plan, we are committed to the equitable distribution of Covid-19 vaccines to all Ghanaians, no matter where they live. Through this partnership, we have implemented a new vaccines delivery model to ensure Covid-19 vaccines are quickly accessible across the country.”

Caroline Roan

The program is an important step in raising immunity to Covid around the world, not just in the wealthy countries that have been under fire for snapping up doses of vaccines, particularly the messenger RNA shots made by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna. While the US has pledged to donate more than one billion doses to poorer countries, vast populations remain without access and companies have also been criticised for failing to make doses more widely available.

To date, Pfizer and BioNTech have delivered two billion doses of the vaccine around the world, and one-third have gone to low and middle-income countries. By the end of 2022, the vaccine partners are committed to distributing a further two billion to such countries. Zipline will be a part of that effort, with the capacity to launch more than a hundred flights a day.

Caroline Roan, Pfizer’s Chief Sustainability Officer and Senior Vice-President of global health and social impact, said the work to bring the vaccine to remote areas is just the beginning. They have looped Moderna’s doses into the program, and already Zipline has delivered 20,000 mRNA vaccines, a milestone in overcoming the vaccines’ storage needs. The companies plan to replicate the drone delivery project in other countries with challenges navigating the shot’s cold-chain requirements. Zipline’s next target is Nigeria, which has additional distribution hurdles.

Marfo continued, “In the northern part of the country, access problems are compounded by bandits, terrorists and Boko Haram,” (a group fighting to overthrow the government and replace it with an Islamic state). “Even in places where the road isn’t that bad, it’s just unsafe to travel.”

Here’s how the process works: Pfizer-BioNTech shots are transported from their plant in Kalamazoo, Michigan to Ghana’s capital of Accra in thermal shippers that can maintain temperatures from negative 90°C-60°C. Upon arrival at Kotoka International Airport, the vaccines are transported in vans to Zipline’s four distribution centres around the country.

“We’ve always wanted to use technology as a leapfrog to ensure that all communities in the world have access to quality healthcare,” Roan remarked. “Drone deliveries are truly the next frontier in how we think about getting out to the communities that have been left behind.”

There, they are moved to freezers before thawing and storage in standard refrigerators. Once thawed, the shots can be kept for as long as a month at 2°C-8°C. Insulation and packing inside the drones can keep cargo at that temperature for at least four hours and prevent the vials from breaking when they land. Zipline conducted test-runs with the vaccine partners throughout the summer to make sure the shots arrived safely.


Pfizer’s collaboration with Zipline dates back to before the pandemic, when the companies began working together in 2019 to bring essential medicines to hard-to reach communities. Roan sees the relationship continuing long into the future.

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